"What is this you have been about to day?"
The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth

John U. Rees
© 2003


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“Beware of being Burgoyned.”
Marching Toward Monmouth, Delaware River to Freehold, 18 to 27 June 1778


Continental Army:
Major Joseph Bloomfield, 3rd New Jersey Regiment
Major General Philemon Dickinson, commander, New Jersey militia
Major Richard Howell, 2nd New Jersey Regiment
Brigadier General William Maxwell, commander New Jersey Brigade
Colonel Sylvanus Seely, New Jersey militia, Morris County
James Jordan, private (nine-month levy) 2nd New Jersey Regiment
Asa Woodward, private (nine-month levy) 2nd New Jersey Regiment

Crown Forces:
Captain John Andre, aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey
Captain Johann Ewald, Hessian Field Jaeger Corps
Captain John Peebles, 42nd Regiment of Foot

(NOTE: A forward slash ( / ) is used in some documents to delineate sentences where punctuation is missing in the original.)

Colonel Israel Shreve’s 2nd New Jersey Regiment marched from Valley Forge in late March 1778 to take post across the Delaware River from British-held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Working in conjunction with the state militia, Shreve’s unit did their best to suppress local Loyalists, stop goods from reaching the city, and observe their enemy’s motions. The 1st New Jersey Regiment joined the 2nd Jersey near Evesham in mid-May. The 3rd and 4th Regiments soon followed. Major Joseph Bloomfield, 3rd New Jersey, wrote of events immediately preceding the Monmouth Campaign:

May. The latter part of this month the 3d. & 4th. Jersey Regts. With Genl. Maxwell marched to Mount-Holly in West-Jersey where we were joined by the 1st. & 2nd. Jersey Regts. & Forman’s Corps.

June. We kept large commands on the lines below Haddenfield, Moores-Town &c. which were relieved weekly. Engaged myself in Exercising the Brigade & introducing the Baron de Steubens Instructions.4

On the morning of 18 June 1778, after a nine-month occupation, General Sir Henry Clinton's forces completed the evacuation of Philadelphia, crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey. From their forward positions at Cooper's Creek Bridge, General Knyphausen's German regiments led the advance, moving six miles to Haddonfield. At the same time the 15th Regiment of Foot, stationed at Billingsport, abandoned that fort and joined the main army. It was not until afternoon the rear of the British column reached the vicinity of Haddonfield, halting for the night.

New Jersey Continentals and militia immediately attempted to impede Clinton’s cross-country movement. More New Jersey brigade casualties were incurred during the 20 to 27 June harassment operations than in the campaign’s culminating battle. Acting most often in small parties, usually in conjunction with militia, the four Jersey regiments suffered one missing, nine captured, five wounded, two killed, and one dead, possibly of sunstroke. By comparison, Maxwell’s brigade casualties in the 28 June battle were seven (possibly eight) wounded and four missing. For details of New Jersey brigade casualties see, John U. Rees, “‘They answered him with three cheers ...’: New Jersey Brigade Losses in the Monmouth Campaign, 17 June to 6 July 1778,” Resource Library, RevWar’75, online.

For a copy that opens in a separate window, which you can refer to as you read, click here

17-18 June 1778

Major Joseph Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“On the 18th. of June (whilst the officers of the [Jersey] Brigade & Gentn. of the Town were feasting on Turtle & Punch &c. &c.) Information was brought that the Enemy were advancing from Haddenfield and Moores-Town to Mount-Holly.”4

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“18 June, "Before daybreak, General Grant with the 1st and 2d Brigade and the Hessian Grenadiers marched in different columns to Glocester Point, where he crossed the Delaware in flat boats. At sunrise the 3rd and 4th Brigades and the Guards were put in motion and came to Glocester Point, where they also crossed. The Grenadiers and Light Infantry passed last. The Vigilant was stationed a little above the point, and her guns could graze the neck of land thro' which the Troops passed, so as to render the embarkation very secure. No shot was fired, nor did an Enemy appear until the whole were on the opposite shore. The 46th and 55th marched the same morning from Cooper's Ferry to Glocester Point, where they joined their respective Brigades. As soon as the Troops were passed, General Knyphausen, with the Hessian Grenadiers and the 1st and 2d Brigades, marched to Haddonfield. Lord Cornwallis with the Light Infantry, British Grenadiers, Guards and 3d and 4th Brigade followed soon after and halted for the night within two miles of Haddonfield.”9

Captain Johann Ewald (Field Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 18th. The army set out one hour before daylight. The jagers formed the advanced guard, followed by the Hessian grenadiers, the provision wagons containing the supplies for the entire retreat, and then the army. The light infantry, rangers, and provincials brought up the rear. As soon as day broke the militia received us with sharp rifle fire, and a part of the light troops of Washington's army hung on our rear guard. The skirmishing continued without letup. Many men fell and lost their lives miserably because of the intense heat, and due to the sandy ground which we crossed through a pathless brushwood where no water was to be found on the entire march.

At midday the army reached the left bank of Moores [present‑day Pennsauken] Creek. The enemy had ruined the bridges across the creek, but they were soon repaired, whereupon the army crossed them and camped ...”10

Captain John Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Wednesday 17th. June     very warm, orders to send every thing over the River but one blanket, & after orders for the Troops to be under Arms at 6 in the Eveng. ... Nothing being now left on this side but the British Infantry, they march'd out in the Eveng. & lay at the lines [protecting Philadelphia.]

Thursday 18th     at Break of day the troops got under Arms at the Lines, and march'd by the skirts of the Town down to Gloucester point (having evacucated the Redoubts & call'd i the Troops that were in Town) where they embark'd in flat boats & cross'd over to Gloucester by several trips, the whole over in the forenoon ... the Troops march'd to within 2 miles of Haddonfield where they Encampd in the usual manner, vizt. Wigwams ... the day very hot‑‑ Knip[hausen] at Haddon.d.”1

19 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“19. [June] At break of day our alarm Guns were fired. The Brigade immediately marched to the Black-Horse [present-day Columbus] (six miles) & Halted. Genl. Clinton at 12 entered Mount Holly, where he continued with the whole Army till [June 22.].” 4

Brigadier General William Maxwell (New Jersey Brigade - American)

19 June, “The Enemy set off late to day from Haddonfield & is coming on the Road to EvesHam. They got a full fire from Capt. Ross [of the 3rd New Jersey] this morning with 50 men which threw them into a great confusion. He came off some distance & Post[ed] them to give them More in a nother place.” 5

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“General Leslie with the Corps from Cooper's Ferry brought up the waggons of the Army to Haddonfield, where they were left, the General proceeding with his Corps to Foster Town. Lord Cornwallis's Column moved before day break and, passing Haddonfield soon after General Leslie, came to Evesham. The Grenadiers on coming to their ground found a Captain of Militia expiring; he had been shot by the Queen's Rangers.”9

Captain Ewald (Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 19th. The army marched off one hour before daylight ... going by way of Fostertown. Toward midday the army arrived on the left bank of Belly‑Bridge [present‑day South West Branch of the Rancocas] Creek, where the enemy had destroyed the bridges. There were still two beams left here [and after crossing with eighty jagers Captain Ewald continued on for another hour until he came near to Arystown] ... After a half an hour's time, I caught sight of several roofs of houses in a hollow. I ordered ten men forward to skirmish, who fired for a little while and beckoned me with their hands. I followed at once and found the creek [the South Branch of the Rancocas Creek at Arystown]. There was a bridge over it next to a mill, on which people were working to destroy it. The mill was occupied by riflemen, who boldly fired when they discovered us ... [Ewald and his jagers soon chased the riflemen from the mill and occupied it.] During this time the army had crossed Belly‑Bridge Creek and encamped ...”10

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Friday 19th.     The army march'd by day light & proceeded thro' Haddonfield, forward to within 2 miles of Foster Town, the Morng. Showery & the day cool‑‑ we march'd I suppose about 10 miles. The front near to foster Town the rear at Haddonfield. The troops occupying the best grounds along the upper road to Mount Holly”1

20 June 1778

Major Richard Howell (2nd New Jersey - American)

From Haddonfield, 20 June, “... before we Left our Detachment, the Genl. [Maxwell] had no Intelligence and, being acquainted with the Country, I have procured such as was in my powr. ... The Enemy march'd in 3 Columns, the first approached Ayres Town yesterday, the 2d [column] arriv'd at foster town & the 3d did [not?] move. This day the 1st [column] arrived at Mt Holly, 2d at Ayres town (perhaps at Holly) & the 3d March'd to Moor's Town. Genl. Leslie commands the advanced Column of perhaps 2000 men, Gen. Clinton the 2d perhaps of 5000 men & Gen. Kniphauzen the Last of 2000 also. Each of these divisions has a great many Waggons, artillery & pontoons. They have many Deserters & move with great Caution & Slowly … Their March has been obstructed as much as possible & their flancks harrass'd by our parties. The General is now posted at Black Horse, where he will contend every advantageous post. The Militia are Collected & collecting, resolv'd to do great things. P.S. The Inhabitants are villianously plundered & some Houses burnt.”2

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“20th The Troops at Evesham were under arms at 4 o'clock in the morning, and at 5 marched, proceeding through Foster Town to Mount Holly, a little way beyond Foster Town. General Leslie's Corps joined the rear of the Column. The Rebels, supposed about 900 in number, under General Maxwell, had quitted Mount Holly the morning before. General Knyphausen having in the evening of the 19th moved the train across a deep ravine a mile and a half on his road from Haddonfield, marched early the 20th to Moorestown, and on the 21st came to Mount Holly and encamped with the remainder of the Army now assembled in one body. Colonel Allen's Corps was posted at a pass in the rear on Rancocas Creek.”9

21 June 1778

Brigadier General William Maxwell (NJ Brigade - American)

Writing to militia General Philemon Dickinson, 21 June, “I think it is now beyond all dout that the Enemy will go through the Jersey unless they are Burgoyned. [A scout] ... was sent down upon the Enemys right yesterday to go as far as Capt. [John] Cummings [2nd New Jersey]. He went 4 miles below Haddonfield [and] found there a man ... who informed him that a party went down and brought up the New Levey & Refugees yesterday from Billings Port to Haddonfield. Cummings & the Militia had a brush with them, he did not see Cummings. The Rear of the Enemy marched from Haddonfield this Morning. Billings Port was Destroyed when they left it ...”6

Captain Ewald (Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 21st. The corps under General von Knyphausen... which was marching to the left of the army by way of Moorestown, rejoined the army here ...”10

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Sunday 21st. June     a good deal of rain last night & this Morng. today hot & sultry     This part of the first Division of the Army halted here at Mount Holly to day ... Kniphausens' division Mov'd forward to Mount Holly ...”1

22 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“22. [June] Monday morning when they occupied our quarters at the Black-Horse & we moved by way of Borden Town to Crosswicks.”4

Private James Jordan (2nd New Jersey - American: 19th century pension deposition)

“the British drove us out of Mount Holly and we retreated to the Black Horse ten Miles from Mt. Holly and there encamped … [we] went into a Quaker Meeting house for the purpose of staying all night the whole regiment was there / about the middle of the night the British     came and surrounded the Meeting house where he and his regiment were / we retreated out of the Back door of the Meeting house and through the grave yard to a town in New Jersey called Crossicks four miles from the Black Horse / this retreat was performed in the night …”7

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“22d The Army was under arms at 4 o’clock in the morning, and marched soon after through Slab Town to the Black Horse. General Leslie with the 5th Brigade took an intermediate road between that of the Column and Burlington, where it was supposed there might be some Rebel Troops … The 5th Brigade afterwards fell into the Black Horse Road and brought up the rear. We learnt at the Black Horse that Maxwell, with a large body of men, had quitted that place at 2 in the morning. Several papers were found warning us to beware if being Burgoyned.”9

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Monday 22d. June     rain in the night     The Army ... moved on to the Black Horse a small Village about 7 or 8 miles from Mount holly & Encampd in two lines facing NW‑‑ Genl. Kniphausens Division on the left‑‑ the Queens Rangers on our Right ... Maxwells Corps of Rebels left the Black horse this Morng. ...”1

23 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“23. [June] The Enemy advanced, their front overtook our rear at Crosswicks-Bridge where a smart skirmish ensued, the 3d. Jersey Regt. covering the retreat of the Brigade & the militia.”4

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“23d … Near the Rising Sun the Rebels had destroyed a bridge, which it took some time to repair. At Crosswicks a piquet of the Enemy fired at the head of the Column, and retired to join a body on the other side of the Creek (Crosswicks Creek) the bridge over which they hastily destroyed. Then Queen’s Rangers followed them very soon, but they retreated with great speed after firing a few shot across the rivulet. A Captain of Simco’s was dangerously wounded. One or two of the Enemy were found killed by grape shot from a 3-pounder brought on a height in front of Crosswicks whilst the bridge was repairing …”9

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Tuesday 23d.     The Army march'd at 4 o'Clock in three Divisions, the left under Genl. Leslie, Kniphausen's Division on the Right, we the Middle division came by the Sign of the Rising Sun to Crosswick about 6 miles. The advanced Corps had a little Skirmish at the Creek when a party of the Rebels had partly broke up the Bridge and made a little Stand with some Cannon, but were soon drove off & pursued with little loss ... The Van of the Army except the 1st Light Infantry cross'd the Creek & together with the rest of the middle Column Encamp'd in the Environs of the Village of Crosswick‑‑ Genl. Kniphausens division on our Right about 13 miles‑‑ Genl. Leslie's moved down towards Burden Town where they had some Cannonading in the Evening ...”1

24 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“24. [June] The Brigade lay this night at Maidenhead, Wednesday near & Thursday night at Hydes-Town.” Major Howell informed General Maxwell on the 24th, “Finding that the Enemy were extreamly carless I [turned] about & Detach'd my Corps in three Divisions hoping that by that means [to] Collect a number of prisoners, Captn. Ross [3rd New Jersey] had a smart fire with the Enemy as they were taking up the Bridge tis thought he Kill'd some of them. The success of the other parties is as yet unknown … Capt. Ross always beheaves well & so will the other two beyond Doubt.”4

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“24th     General Leslie joined Lord Cornwallis at 6 in the morning, and the Division marched immediately after … A good deal of attention was paid to enforcing the Orders respecting plunder, and also the Battalion horses and followers of the Army not mixing in the line of march.”9

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Wednesday 24th. June     the weather these two or three days past Cloudy & cool‑‑ few or none of the Inhabitants at home & many homes deserted entirely. Coll. Shreves house (a Rebel Coll.) and Mr. Talman's (a Congress Man) burn't yesterday on the march contrary to orders and notwithstanding all the precautions taken, a good deal of plundering going on

it was 8 o'Clock this Morng. before we got off the ground, march'd to Allen Town 4 miles and Encampd on a very fine extensive piece of clear ground & almost level to the N:Ed: of the Village, fronting the West in two lines‑‑ or NW‑‑ a pretty Country‑‑

A Remarkable great Eclipse of the Sun today, but being cloudy could not see it till near & at its height, near 10 A:M: when it was almost total, as it went off the day clear'd up & grew hot ...

Genl Kniphausens Division on our Right a few miles‑‑ Genl. Leslie's in the Rear close up‑‑

N:B:    The Cannon we heard last eveng. was the Rebels firing on Br. Genl. Leslie's Camp near Borden Town ...”1

25 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“25. June. 1778. This night I lay with Capt. Voorhees     Lieuts. Wm. Pyatt & Bloomfield with 50 Contl. Soldiers & 40 Militia on Taylor’s heights within a quarter of a Mile of Clinton’s Main-Army. Fired upon & alarmed them several times in the night, and in the morning followed their rear. Capt. Voorhees party took 15 Prisoners & had several skirmishes with the Jagars. Took three Jagars myself Prisoners when I was reconnitreing within sight of the Enemy’s Rear. The Jersey Brigade with the Marquis D. la Feayette, Genl. Wayne & Scott’s chosen corps lay together this Night in Upper-Freehold.”4

Major General Philemon Dickinson (commander, New Jersey militia – American)

“Disposition of the Militia belonging to the State of New Jersey, made by Major Genl. Dickinson, Vizt.

Head Quarters Chamber’s Tavern June 25, 1778

Colonels [Samuel] Furman [2nd Regiment Monmouth County], [Joseph] Haight [2nd Regiment Burlington County] & [Asher] Holmes [1st Regiment Monmouth County], with their respective Battalions, are ordered to gain the Enemies Right Flank & join Col. [Daniel] Morgan’s detachment, who are to annoy the Enemy in that Quarter as much as in their power. They will consist of 3 Col – 1 Lt. Col – 3 Maj – 7 Cap – 15 Sub[altern]s – 13 Serjt – 12 Corp – 163 Priv.

Colonels [John] Neilson [2nd Regiment Middlesex County] & [John] Webster [1st Regiment Middlesex County] with their Battalions will take post in Front of the Enemy, throw every possible obstruction in their Rout, impeded their march & harass them, whenever opportunity present. This Detachment will consist of 2 Col – 1 Lt. Col – 1 Maj – 6 Capt. – 16 Sub[altern]s – 19 Serjts – 13 Corps – 218 Privates.

Capt. Lane & 25 of his Company of axmen to attend Col. Neilson.

Col. [Nathaniel] Scudder [1st Regiment Monmouth County] with his Battalion will join Brig’r Genl Scott on the left flank of the Enemy consisting of 150 Privates.

The whole of the remaining Militia, are to be equally divided & to do duty on the lines alternately, Officers as well as privates.”12

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“The Troops received Orders to be under arms at 4 o’clock, and marched by the left as soon as the baggage had got to the front. This reversion of the order of march took up some time, and it was late before the rear was in motion … As the Rear quitted the ground a few of the Rebels possessed themselves of the house which had been Lord Cornwallis’s Quarters, but were speedily dislodged by a gun of the Light Infantry.”9

Captain Ewald (Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 25th. At daybreak the army set out toward Cranbury, to make the enemy believe we meant to aim at his march to Princeton and attack him ... The Jager Corps had to skirmish all day long with the enemy ...”10

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Thursday 25 June. ...The Army March'd at 4 OClock this Morng. ... Genl. Kniphausen's Division came in upon our road about 3 or 4 miles from Allens Town & moved on in our front, proceeding on the road to Monmouth Court House, Head Qrs. at the Sign of the Sun in Upper Freehold, Knip[hausen] with the Provision train 6 miles further on‑‑

The road generally sandy & now & then a thick wodd [sic]‑‑ a great many people left their houses & drove away their Cattle‑‑ a few of the Enemys Light Horse make their Appearance at every Camp     they watch our Motions, & exchange a Shot sometimes‑‑ the Weather very hot”1

26 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“Friday 26. Marched & Lodged with the above Troops to English Town where we were reinforced by Genl. Lee’s Division.”4

Colonel Sylvanus Seely (Morris County militia - American)

“Jun 26th, marched to Freehold & Stayed there all Night.  Took 13 prisoners”8

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“26th     Lord Cornwallis’s Division marched in the same order as the preceding day, at 5 o’clock. There was a little firing as the rear was put in motion. The Division halted within two miles of Freehold or Monmouth Court House. The roads the Army had marched thro’ were in general very sandy, and the land, except in the neighborhood of Allentown, deemed poor. The weather, which after the first two or three days’ march, which were rainy, was very sultry, and as we approached Freehold water was very scarce. The Rebels had added to this by stopping up the wells …”9

Captain Ewald (Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 26th. At daybreak the army marched off ... toward Monmouth Court House. It was an extremely warm day. I had to make up the rear guard of the entire division ... Before daylight the enemy riflemen began to fire at the sentries. I had scarcely orders to follow the army when they drew up on all sides. I was so hard pressed on the flanks at different times that the Corps and the light infantry had to support me. The enemy kept hanging on me up to the new camp. I lost over 60 men out of 180 foot jagers and 30 horsemen, among which may well have been some 20 men who dropped dead from the great heat and fatigue.”10

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Friday 26th.     ready to march at 4 but it was 6 before we got off the ground     march'd to the Eastwd. 8 or 10 miles & Encamp'd at Freehold or Monmouth Court House between 11 & 12 on a very fine extensive clearing facing to the Northwd. Genl. Kniphausens Divisn. came on to with[in] two miles of this yesterday & March'd from there early this Morng.     a Sandy Soild Mixt Wood‑‑ hot with Thunder”1

27 June 1778

Major Bloomfield (3rd New Jersey - American)

“Saturday. 27. June. Lay on our Arms at English-Town, waiting the motions of the Enemy.”4

(Note: The Bloomfield Diary continues in Appendix H - Jump to there).

Colonel Seely (Morris County militia - American)

“Jun 27th, marched to a meeting house near English Town; our men suffered greatly with heat and drought. Was sent in the evening with 200 men to keep a guard at Mills and the enemy had a party there who had taken and killed a scouting party of our light Infantry but on our appearing they left the ground and we took possession and stayed all night”8

(Note: The Seely Diary continues in Appendix H - Jump to there).

Private Asa Woodward (2nd New Jersey - American; 19th century pension deposition)

“… in a skirmage the day before the Battle of Monmouth in the State of New Jersey was wounded by two Musket Balls one of which broke his left jaw bone; the other went in at his mouth & out at the side of his neck was bayoneted in many places & received divers wounds with swords & cutlasses & left for dead on the field that in the evening a picket of the enemy took me a prisoner & was sent to New York where he remained near a year in a sugar house as a prisoner …”7 [muster roll11 shows 22 June as date of capture]

Captain Andre (Aide-de-camp, Major-General Charles Grey - British)

“27th     The Army halted at Freehold.”9

Captain Ewald (Jaeger Corps - German)

“The 27th. Since the army had lost over two hundred men on yesterday's march through the intolerable heat, it stopped today to rest ...”10

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Saturday 27th. June     The Army halted ... Here the two Columns join, and ly Encamp'd on a very fine extensive plain in the Environs of the little Village at Monmouth Court House, making a line of about 4 miles the front about NW. the flanks facing outwd. with now & then some little popping at the different out Guards: half a dozen of the Sculking rascals taken this Morng.”1

28 June 1778

Captain Peebles (42nd Regiment - British)

“Sunday 28th June     a fight …”1

(Note: The Peebles Diary continues in Appendix G - Jump to there).


1. Ira D. Gruber, ed., John Peebles’ American War: The Diary of a Scottish Grenadier, 1776-1782 (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1998), 189-193 (text originally transcribed from John Peebles Journals (microfilm edition): Scottish Record Office, Edinburgh; Cunninghame of Thorntoun Papers (GD 21); Papers of Lt., later Capt., John Peebles of the 42d. Foot, 1776‑1782; incl. 13 notebooks comprising his war journal; book #6.)

2. Richard Howell to (Philemon Dickinson or George Washington), 20 June 1778, George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm, (Washington, DC, 1961), series 4, reel 50 (hereafter cited as GW Papers).

3. Richard Howell to William Maxwell, 24 June 1778, GW Papers, series 4, reel 50.

4. Mark E. Lender and James Kirby Martin, eds., Citizen Soldier ‑ The Revolutionary War Journal of Joseph Bloomfield (Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1982), 135-136.

5. William Maxwell to Philemon Dickinson, 19 June 1778, GW Papers, series 4, reel 50.

6. William Maxwell to Philemon Dickinson, 21 June 1778, ibid., series 4, reel 50.

7. Pension depositions: James Jordan (W8225); Asa Woodward (S33954), Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications in the National Archives (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976), the actual applications themselves and related materials may be found in National Archives Microfilm Publication M804 (2,670 reels).

8. Sylvanus Seely Diary (colonel, Morris County militia), original in Morristown National Historic Park Collection, World Wide Web transcription,

9. John Andre, Major Andre's Journal ‑ Operations of the British Army ... June 1777 to November, 1778 (Tarrytown, N.Y., 1930; reprinted New York: New York Times and Arno Press, 1968), 74-83.

10. Johann Ewald, Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, Joseph P. Tustin, ed. (New Haven, Ct., 1979), 132‑139.

11. Asa Woodward, Captain John Hollinshead's company, July 1778 muster roll, Revolutionary War Rolls, National Archives Microfilm Publications, Record Group 93, M246 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1980), muster and pay rolls, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 1777 to 1779, reels 57 to 60.

12. Philemon Dickinson, “Disposition of the Militia belonging to the State of New Jersey …,” 25 June 1778, The Lee Papers, vol. II, 1776-1778, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1872 (New York, 1873), 413.

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Appendix B