“In High Spirits and Full of Fight”
Part II: The Sullivan Expedition of 1779
Transcription by Liz Tait, © 2006.
Edited web version © 2007 by Bob McDonald and John K. Robertson.
Map showing the Sullivan Expedition of 1779. Easton, Pennsylvania, the expedition's starting point, is in the lower right corner. Lakes Senaca and Cayuga appear in upper central portion of the map. You can access a detailed version of this map (large file) in a separate window to follow along with the narrative by clicking here.
Friday June 18, 1779.
At 5 O’Clock A.M. the troops under the command of General Sullivan began their March from Easton for Wioming [Wyoming]. We proceeded about five miles, halted and refreshed ourselves, after which we marched as far as Miller’s [i.e., Heller’s] Tavern where we arrived about 1 O’Clock in the Afternoon and formed our Encampment for the Night. According to the Order of March issued by the General, Maxwell’s Brigade was in front, next Proctor’s train of Artillery and last Poor’s Brigade. The country we passed over this Day was hilly and stoney with scarcely any Timber fit for improvement. The ground is covered over with a thick brush called ground-oake. The inhabitants [are] very few, and very ignorant of every thing except what passes in their native mountains. Our course this day was westwardly. Our distance 12 miles.
Saturday June 19.
About half after four in the morning we marchd from Miller’s Tavern toward Brinker’s Mills where we halted and took Breakfast, drew four Days provisions and proceeded on for Lardner’s [i.e., Learned’s] Tavern near Pokono [i.e., Pocono] Point where we encamped for the Night. We found very little change in the appearance of the country from the yesterday’s march. There is a small Lake between Miller’s Tavern and Brinker’s, about half a mile in Length & a quarter in breadth which the inhabitants say is very deep. This day we crossed the noted Blue-Mountain at the wind-gap, called so in opposition [i.e., contrast] to that gap thro which the Delaware passes called the water-gap. Our March about fifteen miles today and our course about two points to the eastward of North.
Sunday June 20.
We marched from Lardner’s Tavern about eight O’Clock in the Morning and proceeded about six miles to a place called the *Devil’s Bowery where we encamped for the Remainder of the day & night on account of not having convenient encamping ground at a proper distance. This day we passed thro’ a deep swamp whose timber was chiefly Hemlocks, Poplar and the Aspen. The underwood was chiefly Laurel & Magnolia. The country amazingly hilly and piney and to me appears [un?]inhabitable. Our course this day turned more northwestwardly.—No Sermon today on account of the extraordinary fatigue of the Troops.
*called by Genl. Sullivan Chowder-Camp
Monday June 21.
At a quarter before five O’Clock A.M. we proceeded from Chowder-Camp— after marching about five miles we halted to breakfast at a branch of the Lehi[gh] called Tunkhanunke [i.e., Tunkhannock]—After breakfast we entered the great Swamp which is nine or ten Miles across—we soon came to another branch of Lehigh called Tobahanna. The great swamp abounds with a great variety of excellent timber viz Spruce, Hemlock, white pine, Birch, Beech, wild Cherry-tree, Maple, Ash, etc from one to four feet diameter and from 100 to 200 feet high. The soil appeared to be strong, but so interspersed with stones and roots that it would be a Herculean Labor to make it arable. The Timber I make no doubt will yet be transported to Philadelphia & other parts of the Continent by the way of [the] Delaware or Susquehanna, to the waters of either the Swamp is contiguous.—We next passed a old Indian plantation called Locust-Hill from a great number of small Locust trees growing upon it—upon examining it as an encamping place we found that there was no water near it. Entered a place called the Shades of death, from its gloomy appearance, being surrounded with hills and thick woods. As soon as we made our way good thro’ this serious place we came to the main branch of the Lehigh which is about 4 rod broad & about mid thigh deep. In a short time we entered another swamp of about 2 miles across called the Bear swamp. It abounds with most beautiful timber nearly of the same kinds of that in the great Swamp only the proportion of white pine is greater and that of hemlock lesser. A great number of sugar trees are to be found in both. We discovered also some goose berry bushes full of fruit in those swamps. In the great Swamp we found a porcupine which I divested of some of its quills as a matter of curiosity. After that tedious march of 20 miles over a very stony country we arrived at Fatigue Camp about 6 O’Clock in the afternoon, where we encamped. Our horses were tied to trees both the past Nights without any kind of forage. The road being rough and new several of our Waggons and Gun Carriages broke down, which we found difficult to repair. Our course was about northwest. [Hunter’s added note:] Mosick Mountn, a ridge in the gt. [great] swamp that separates the waters of Delaw[ar]e from those of Susquehanna.
Tuesday June 22.
On account of our yesterday’s fatigue we did not march this day ‘till near two O’Clock. We found some change in the face of the country, particularly in several groves of pretty young oak timber. The soil somewhat better and one or two places seem to be habitable. From the rising ground about half a mile from Fatigue Camp we saw Pokono P[oin]t. which is not less than twenty six miles distant. In a short Time we came to a plantation known by the name of Bullock’s tavern, which appears to be capable of a good deal of improvement having on it a large body of wild Meadows. The distressed owner and his family being exposed to the Barbarities of the Savages were obliged some time since to abandon it and fly to the fort at Wioming for shelter. Here we formed a very pretty encampment on the edge of the Meadow and continued the night. The Stockbridge Indians report their having seen an enemy Indian in the woods near the camp. This country from Easton to this place has a considerable number of Deer, Bear, Rattle Snakes etc.—our Distance today about five miles & our course near Northwest.—This day a person came in who in the month of April last had been made a prisoner near Minisink by 2 tories and some Indians. After being carried thro a long tract of country, experiencing the severest usage by being bound in the most cruel Manner and otherwise ill treated, he had the good fortune to make his escape within about a day’s march of Chemung when the Indians were asleep. He was obliged to leave his only son and two other boys behind. In relating this circumstance he was greatly affected. For 40 days he was almost destitute of provisions, rattle snakes and a few small fish supported him till his arrival at Wyoming. He was 18 or 20 days without seeing a fire—He seemed very sensible of his great deliverance and gave God the praise.
Wednesday June 23.
In the morning the General ordered that the troops should clean and dress themselves. About 8 o’clock we marched for Wyoming—In about 3 miles we came to the place where Capt. Davies and Lt. Jones with a corporal and four privates were murdered by a party of the savages consisting of about twenty in April last. Two boards are set up at the very spots where Davies and Jones were killed with their names on them, and that where Jones was killed is besmeared with own blood. At this melancholy sight all without distinction [i.e., without exception] appeared affected and many paid the universal indication of sorrow. Col. Proctor out of respect to the deceased caused his Band to play Roslin Castle. In about 2 miles farther we had a view of the River Susquehanna. We halted and made the necessary arrangement for an orderly march into town. Genl. Hand and many other Officers met us and welcomed us in. What we generally call Wyoming is called by the people of Connecticut who at present claim it Westmoreland County. It is laid out in 6 Townships Willsbury, Lackawaney & Nanticoke on the East, Exeter, Shawaney & Kingston on the West. The land is extremely good for about a mile in breadth on each side the River, the lots running from that to the mountain containing about 500 Acres each. They had a church & court house with many decent dwelling houses all which the enemy burnt after the memorable battle fought between the Butlers, in which about 250 of our men were killed, 100 of whom had wives and children. The widows and orphans having lost all their property have scarcely food to eat or clothe to wear. Near the Town is an excellent coal mine, said to contain a vast quantity of coal. After we had marched to our encamping ground, a number of us dined with Genl. Hand and some with other Officers. Went in the afternoon to visit the fort, and redoubts, which we judged not to be very defensible.—
Thursday June 24.
Spent my time in reading and reconnoitring the river and the vicinity of the camp.
Friday June 25.
Wrote a number of letters, to Mrs. Hunter, to Mesieurs Clark and Vanunem, to Jackey Noel and to Col. R. L. Hooper—
Private, 1st New Hampshire Regt., 1778-79
© Don Troiani
Saturday June 26.
Studied the forenoon in preparation for the Sabbath—Dined with General Hand and returned to study in the afternoon.
Sunday 27 June.
Agreeably to General Sullivan’s orders I preached to the Jersey Brigade in the forenoon, and in the latter part of the day spent my time in reading the Bible.
Monday June 28.
Began a sermon in the forenoon and after Dinner visited Col. Proctor of the Artillery.
Tuesday June 29.
Visited two men in the provost, who were under sentence of death—one of whom I found to be a little tender [i.e., of spirit?], the other more stupid than usual. I endeavoured to array before them the sinfulness of their nature, the heinousness of their crimes and particularly that of which they had been convicted by a court martial, seducing several of our soldiers to desert. This day arrived about 35 boats from Sunbury loaded with stores and provisions for the Expedition up the river under convoy of the First Jersey Regiment which had been sent to Fort Jenkins, 30 miles from Wyoming & the same distance from the forks of Susquehanna, for that purpose. The boats, which the inhabitants call Batteaux, carry between two and three tons.
Wednesday June 30.
Studied till breakfast, visited the criminals in the forenoon, dined with Col. Sheriff----in the afternoon visited the criminals again. I found one of them much softened and to appearance felt the Justice of the court in condemning him and owned the Justice of God if he should be finally condemned. The other still appeared insensible of his situation.
Thursday July 1st.
In the morning visited the criminals & this being the day of execution I pressed the substance of religion upon them. Dined at Col. Ogden’s with a large company. About 3 o’clock the criminals attended by Dr. Rogers, Dr. Kirkland and myself began to move towards the place of execution. The troops were taken out in order, and all the inhabitants attended, to see the awful spectacle. At the gallows after we had given the necessary advice to the unhappy creatures about to leave the world Dr. Rogers addressed the spectators in a pathetic manner & Dr. Kirkland made a prayer. The elder of the prisoners, Roseberry, was then executed, while the other, Miller, sat in the cart expecting his dreadful doom; but the clemency of the General had interposed between him and justice, and the officer of the day began to read a paper which proved to be a pardon. He appeared to be more affected with his pardon than with a prospect of his dissolution. He showed many signs of penitence and prayed that his family might have the forgiveness of their country.—Wrote to Mrs. Hunter by Col. Brearley.
Friday July 2.
Wrote all day in finishing a sermon.
Saturday July 3d.
Spent the day in studying for the Sabbath.
Sunday July 4.
Preached in the forenoon to my own brigade & in the afternoon went to hear Mr. Kirkland preach to the inhabitants.
Monday July 5.
Thirty Boats were sent off to Sunbury to meet the provision fleet. Spent the forenoon in reading—dined with Genl. Sullivan and in the afternoon wrote to Mrs. Hunter & Mr. Collins by Captain Burrows.
Tuesday July 6.
Began a sermon in the forenoon, dined with Col. Proctor with about 50 other gentlemen—we had a severe Thunder Storm or our Company would have been larger. Determined in future to avoid large companies, as the conversation in such cases is always cramped, and I feel like a man starving to death amidst a great variety of food, and in common find neither sentiment nor diversion.
Wednesday July 7.
Studied the greater part of the day.
Thursday July 8.
Set out after breakfast to visit the ground where the famous battle was fought between the two Butlers on the 3d of July 1778, [i.e., the so-called Wyoming Massacre] in company with Generals Maxwell & Hand and a number of other officers. We proceeded as far as Genl. Poor’s camp where he and several other gentlemen joined us. From Fourty-fort we had an escort of 30 men and two officers. After riding about 6 miles which is the distance from Wyoming to Wintermute’s fort and plantation, we were shocked by seeing a grave which contains 75 persons, and mens sculls which had been struck thro with tomhocks [i.e., tomahawks]. Having viewed the ground sufficiently we returned to Genl. Poor’s camp where we dined and returned home. In the evening wrote a letter to Mrs. Hunter, by way of Philadelphia. While we were out Col. Butler showed us an island in the river where a party of Indians & tories surrounded a party of our men on their retreat one of whom was brother to one of the tories. He fell in with his brother first and beged his life, told him he would be his servant during his life if he would spare him—after the most pathetic entreaties in behalf of himself and family, the tory brother damned him for a rebel, loaded his piece, shot him down & scalped him.
Friday July 9.
Being chosen a member of committee to revise the By-Laws of a warranted lodge of free masons, spent the whole day in that business.
Saturday July 10.
Spent the day in study.
Sunday July 11.
The day being very wet and stormy we could not take out the troops to divine service—Spent the day in reading etc.—a letter arrived from Genl. Clinton dated Head of Lake Otzego [Otsego] informing that 25 Oneida warriors had joined him. That the enemy Indians were collecting together in their own country to oppose us, also that 300 were detached to harrass us on our march.
Monday July 12.
Spent the day in reading,—nothing extraordinary occured—
Tuesday July 13.
A Letter came from Genl. Hand to Head Quarters requesting that the large Batteaux might be sent down the river as the boats at Sunbury were not sufficient to transport the stores. They were sent off accordingly under convoy of two armed boats and 150 infantry.
Wednesday July 14.
Last night 33 of the German Regt. deserted under plea of the term of their inlistment having expired, properly armed. Their route being discovered by an Indian sent out for that purpose, a detachment of 50 men on horse back were ordered to pursue them.
Thursday July 15.
Spent the day in writing Letters. Had an account that all the deserters from the G. Regt. except 4 or 5 were taken.
Friday July 16.
Spent the whole Day in studying.
Saturday July 17.
Studied the forenoon—Informed that the Indians had been committing some outrages on the west branch of Susquehanna, by killing 9 or 10 men who were making hay at Lacommon [Lycoming].
Sunday July 18.
At the usual time and place preached to my own Brigade and Genl. Sullivan’s family [i.e., Sullivan’s staff officers]. A scouting party of 4 soldiers and 4 Stockbridge Indians returned from Wialusing [i.e., Wyalusing] where they had been sent to reconnoitre. They discovered many Mokason tracts [moccasin tracks] but saw no enemy.
Monday July 19.
Col. Copathwait of Phlada. arrived here as inspector of the provision—who informs that the chief part of what he had examined was unfit for use.
Tuesday July 20
Came to hand an account of the Enemy’s having burnt Fairfield and plundered New Haven in Connecticut.
Wednesday July 21.
This morning an express arrived with the following intelligence from the main Army. That on the night of the 15 inst. General Wayne with a part of his Light Infantry surprized and took the whole garison at Stoney-point, with all their cannon and stores, tents and baggage of every kind with the loss of 4 or 5 men. The garison consisted of British, Scots, and New-levies—with 2 or 3 companies of grenadiers and matrosses—in all about 500.—We had also information of a party of Indians being at Minisink and burning and plundering as they went.
Thursday July 22.
Spent the whole day in reading—nothing worthy of being noted.—
Friday July 23.
Finished a sermon and wrote some Letters.
Saturday July 24.
Arrived Genl Hand with the Sunbury Fleet consisting of 112 boat, laden with provisions and stores. They made a very pleasing appearance and as they approached the camp fired thirteen pieces of Cannon by way of Fieu de joie [i.e., feu de joie: literally, fire of joy, a running fire salute]. The troops then had orders to be in readiness to march on Wednesday morning. The deserters from the German Regt. having been tried by a general Court martial were sentenced as follows: five to be shot to death, two corporals to be reduced to the ranks and with the remaining 22 to run the gantlope [i.e., gantelope, period variant of gauntlet] thro Maxwell’s & Hand’s brigades and the regiment of artillery. The respective punishments to take place on Monday next 4 O’Clock P.M.—
Sunday July 25.
No divine service on account of the day being very rainy and stormy. In this day’s orders was published the line of March for the army from this place to Tioga.
Monday July 26.
Continued raining ‘till 3 O’Clock P.M. Visited the criminals under sentence of death in the provost-guard. Their execution postponed on account of the unsettled appearance of the weather.
Tuesday July 27.
Again visited the criminals and found them a good deal affected by their approaching end. Dr. Rogers, Dr. Kirkland and myself represented their condition and character to Genl. Sullivan—He informed us a board of officers were to meet in a short time, and that he would lay it before them. In consequence of their advice the following order was issued, and read with sensations that can hardly be described. “The commander in chief having received a petition from the prisoners of the German Battn. now under sentence manifesting their consciousness of the crimes for which they have been condemned, and promising in case of pardon to distinguish themselves in future as brave and obedient soldiers. Which petition being laid before a board of Genl. Officers, In hope that an act of lenity may have a proper effect on their future conduct as well as that of others they have unanimously advised a pardon to all the offenders without discrimination. The General wishing to extend mercy where it can be done without injury to the public service has accordingly consented to pardon each and every of the offenders tried and sentenced by a general court martial whereof B[rigadier]. Genl. Poor was president and directs that they may be immediately released and restored to their duty. Lest this unparalleled act of lenity should be abused and soldiers take the same unjustifiable measures hereafter, the commander in chief absolutely declares he will not in future pardon a Deserter or one who tho’ his time be expired shall quit his corps without a proper discharge from his commanding officer.”
Shawnee Warrior, ca. 1750-84
© Don Troiani
Wednesday July 28.
News arrived of a large body of Indians having drawn about 140 of our Militia stationed on the Delaware above the Minisink into an ambuscade. 18 or 20 only of the party made their escape. All the rest fell a prey to savage barbarity. This unfortunate affair happend 22d Inst.
Thursday July 29.
The procession of free masons at the Interment of Capt. Jos. Davis & Lt. Wm. Jones who were cruelly massacred the 23d of April last by a party of Savages on their march to Wyoming as follows:
1. 24 musqueteers with reversed arms. 2. A band of music— 3. Two Tylers [?] bearing drawn swords. 4. Two Deacons with their wands. 5. Three brethren bearing the orders. 6. The holy Bible & book of Constitution supported by two brothers— 7. Two Clergymen— 8. The worshipful Master of Lodge Nr. 19 and the Honble Major Genl. Sullivan. 9. Senior and Junior Wardens bearing their Columns.— 10. The Treasurer and Secretary— 11. Past-Masters— 12. The Brethren of Lodge No. 19 two by two. 13. The brethren of the Army.— 14. Two Corps of Drums muf[f]led and fifes playing a solemn Dirge.—
The Regt. of Artillery—The 11[th] Penna. Regiment—with a large concourse of persons of every character.—After divine service was performed by Dr. Rogers 24 musqueteers fired three vollies.—The brethren were neatly clothed and jeweled, and the whole scene was conducted with the decorum usual amongst brethren.
Friday 30 July.
The whole army assiduously engaged in preparing to march—Col. Proctor appointed to command the fleet & artillery aboard. The account of our loss by the Indians at Minisink reduced to 40 odd. The greatest part of our stores & ammunition on board the boats in numbers.
Saturday July 31.
About twelve O’Clock began our March to Tioga and arrived at Lachawaney [Lackawanay] about 5—The country pretty habitable and the distance 10 miles.—Lachawaney is a fine river of about 60 yards in width & the country about it on the Susquehanna most beautiful and fertile—This day’s march chiefly within a mile of Susquehanna, and the road pretty good.—We passed the views of many houses and barns which had been burnt by the savages. Our course North.north.East—N.B. The River Lackawanick before the inroad of the savages last year was inhabited [for] 16 miles from where it enters into the Susquehanna.—
Sunday August 1.
Marched about 3 o’Clock P.M. On our way about a mile from Lachawanick we contemplated with pleasure a most beautiful cascade called Falling-Spring. It is a stream with falls from the summit of a mountain with a prodigious noise amongst remarkable large rocks. The water disengaged from the mountain by jutting rocks falls about 100 feet upon a flat ledge.—We then entered a narrow defile between the river and the end of a mountain where we could only move in Indian file, and if a horse missed a step he fell down a precipice several yards, which was the case with many of them—This defile lasted about 3 miles when we came to open wood where there had been a plantation, but every improvement had been burned by the savages—In a short distance we entered a second defile nearly like the former, but night coming on we found it more tedious—we arrived at Wyobutamunk [i.e., Quialutimack] about 9 O’Clock at night, built up some small fires and lay down to sleep with nothing but the canopy of heaven to cover us. Our course this day N.N.E. ‘till we got thro’ the first defile when we turned with the Susquehanna nearly a west course and our distance 7 miles.
Monday August 2.
On account of our late arrival at Wiotutemunk and the confused and disorderly state of the Army we continued on our ground. At night were a good deal disturbed by the hideous noise of wolves.
Tuesday 3. August
We marched at 7 O’Clock A.M.—We arrived at Tunkhannunk, a fine stream of water, about 20 yards wide, and encamped on the Northwest side of the river on an excellent Tract of rich bottom bounding on the Susquehanna. The country over which we travelled this day [is] generally hilly, good timber of various kinds and rich soil. We passed a small fall of water called Butter-milk falls. In our camp we discovered several wild Turkies, some deer and a young bear—our course N.N.W. and our distance 12 miles. It is said that 100,000 acres of land is located up the Tunkhannunk.
Wednesday Augt. 4.
Marched at 6 o’Clock A.M. and reached Vanderliss [i.e., Vanderlip] farm alias Phippi about 5 in the afternoon. We found a lovely spot of bottom land cover’d with extraordinary black walnut and other useful timber, with a small improvement—at our first coming we raised and pursued a number of wild Turkies—The country from Break-neck-hill which about two miles from Vanderliss is capable of much cultivation the soil being rich and the Timber very good. Several pack horses fell down Break-neck-hill, a precipice of about 50 yards, some were killed and others survived it—. Our course N.W. and our distance 13 miles. Meshapan [i.e., Machapendarre Creek] is only water of note today.
Thursday Augt. 5.
Marched at 10 o’Clock A.M. & reached Wyaloosing about 5 o’Clock. The country [is] pretty good and covered with grass between Vanderliss and Wyaloosing. The latter place is a tract of bottom land of about 500 acres exceedingly rich and covered with the finest luxuriant grass—It is as formerly possessed by Job Gillaway an Indian, who sold it to a family of the Pauline near Schuylkill, it is now the property of the state as its owners have joined the enemy. There was some time ago a small society of Moravian Indians at this place—They had a regular town of about 80 houses and a church, which Since the commencement of the War they have abandoned and the Indians burnt.—We crossed no considerable water but Tuscarora-creek which is shallow and about 15 yards wide—Our course N.W. by W. and our distance 8 miles—which makes Wyaloosing 50 miles from Wyoming.
Friday Augt. 6.
Continued at Wyaloosing to refresh, reconnoitred the invirons of the camp and the banks of the river for some distance with Col. Dayton. Orders were issued to march at 8 O’Clock next morning, but rain coming on in the evening and continuing all night they were countermanded.—
Saturday Augt. 7.
In consequence of the rainy weather we continued on our ground. Orders issued for marching tomorrow morning—
Sunday Augt. 8
Marched at 6 o’Clock A.M. In about 2 miles after we left Wialoosing planes we crossed the creek called by that name which runs into the Susquehanna. We then crossed an exceeding high mountain from whence we discovered several extensive chains of mountains on all quarters. We arrived at Standing-stone bottom a large tract of low land where there had been an English settlement, about 1 o’Clock P.M. where we encamped for the night—our course N.W. & distance 10 miles.
Monday 9 Augt.
Marched about 6 o’Clock A.M. left Towandaw and Cheshequinunk [Sheshecunnock] flatts to the left about a mile and arrived at the plains nearly opposite Tioga called Upper Sheshequionunk about 5 o’Clock P.M. We passed an exceeding dangerous defile between the mountain and the river upon a narrow path along the edge of the former, where if you slipt three inches out of the way you fell better than 100 feet down a steep precipice—on this day’s march we crossed no good stream of water except piney creek or Fresh-Meadow-creek which is 4 miles from Standing stone. Our course nearly N.W. and our distance about 15 miles.
Tuesday Augt. 10.
Continued at Cheshequinunk plains, containing about 600 acres of bottom land covered with grass, until the fording places across the Susquehanna should be reconnoitred, as we expected some resistance from the Indians at our crossing—
Wednesday Augt. 11.
Marched about 7 O’Clock A.M. in order to cross the river. We took the ford about a mile and a half below where the Caiuga [Cayuga] branch empties into the Susquehanna and with a good deal of difficulty on account of the depth of the water we passed without any loss of men or horses. Some of the former being fatigued fell down and would have been drowned had not those on horseback and the stronger of those on foot assisted them. Col. Barber was in danger of being drowned by pursuing a soldier floating down stream. I myself dragged one [soldier] half across the river by my cane. Many seized by horses tails. After passing thro’ about a mile of bottom we came to Queen Esther’s plains the place where her palace formerly stood. The plain is extensive containing perhaps 300 acres covered with grass, and the ruins of the palace are to be seen; they are however not so remarkable as those of Palmira. We then crossed the Caiuga branch and encamped on the neck of land between that and the east or main branch, called Tioga, from an Indian town which had formerly stood there by that name. We found many Indian tracts, the skins of Cattle which the[y] had killed, and several parcels of mechanic’s tools and houshold furniture which had been hidden by them before their flight. Our course N.W. and our distance 5 miles.—All the bottom land and most of the hills between Wyoming and Tioga are covered with luxuriant grass of different kinds and herbage of every species, particularly the pea-vine which is a most excellent nutritious food for cattle and horses. Great numbers of bear, deer, turkies, etc. are to be found in this country. The General after we had encamped sent out Capt. Cummings with 6 men to go to Chemung to make discoveries.
Thursday Augt. 12.
Capt. Cummings returned about 2 O’Clock P.M. with the party and reported that he reached within about a mile of the Town before day-break, and as soon as it was light advanced up within a few hundred yards, but the fogg, which is usual on all parts of the Susquehanna, prevented his making any discovery ‘till after 10 o’Clock when he saw several Indians & a few tories walking about. They appeared at one time to be engaged in business of some concern.—Upon which a council was called and it was agreed that we should attempt to surprize them. The General ordered the Army to be in readiness to move at 9 o’Clock at night—Accordingly the whole troops except the artillery, a few invalids and guards marched at the time mentioned.
Friday Augt. 13.
The army after marching all night arrived at Chemung, 15 miles from Tioga, about 5 o’Clock in the morning—The advanced party entered the town which they found evacuated, and after searching the houses etc were ordered to advance some distance beyond the town along the river. On their advance they found where the Indians had lain the night before and proceeding in pursuit of them were fired on from the top of a little hill where they had formed an ambuscade. Genl. Hand ordered his men to advance upon them, upon which they ran into an almost impervious front. The party returned towards the town and the whole had orders to cross the river and march about 2 miles up on the west side to destroy some large fields of Corn. When they were cutting down the corn, the Indians fired again across the river from the same place without effect. We had 6 men killed and 7 or 8 wounded. Among the latter were Capt. Carbury & Lt. Houston both of the 11[th] Pennsylvania Regt.—while the advanced party was pursuing the Indians the other Troops set fire to the town, which consisted of about 30 houses, and carefully attended it ‘till consumed. The troops then returned to Tioga much fatigued, having been marching the whole night and day almost without intermission.
Saturday Augt. 14.
The General in the orders of this [day] mentioned the bravery and perseverance of the troops and pointed out the faults observed on the march in pointed manner—Spent the day in studying and writing some Letters—
Sunday Augt. 15
Orders having been issued the day before for 900 Men to be in readiness to march the next morning to meet Genl. Clinton and such large fatigue parties being sent out, it was thought by the Genl. best not to call the troops together for divine service—About three o’Clock P.M. a party of Indians attacked some boys in sight of the camp who were bringing in some horses—They shot one dead whom they scalped and wounded another who made his escape—this was done in sight of several who stood on the opposite bank of the river Caiuga, and many at a distance heard the whoops of the Indians after they took the scalp—large parties were sent out to all parts to endeavor to circumvent them, but to no effect.
Monday Augt. 16.
The party to meet Genl. Clinton under command of Genl. Poor & Genl. Hand marched about 10 o’Clock A.M. An Express arrived from Wyoming by whom Genl. Sullivan received a Letter from Genl. Clinton informing that he intended to leave Ononguage the 16 instant—Recd. a letter from Mrs. Hunter of the 26 ultimo. informing of her ill state of health. The letter had been broke open, but as it contained no secrets nor did any discredit to the writer, it gave me no uneasiness. The practice of breaking letters always excites in one a sufficient degree of contempt abstracting from the meanness of the agent—
Tuesday Augt. 17.
Began to read Burlamaqui on the principles and law of Nature—A party of Indians said to be ten or twelve waylaid six men belonging to the German Battalion who had been out hunting horses—The parties fired on each other and both endeavoured to escape—We had one man killed whom the savages scalped before they went off, and one wounded who got in—Detachmts. were immediately sent out, but could not overtake them—
Wednesday Aug. 18.
Attended a funeral sermon delivered by Dr. Rogers in memory of Captain Davis and Lt. Jones of the 11th Penna. Regt. who were massacred by the Indians near Wyoming on their March to relieve the distressed inhabitants of that place. The composition was good and the delivery satisfactory.—Continued the pleasing study of Burlamaqui.
Thursday Augt. 19.
Friday Augt. 20
An Officer and eight men arrived from Genl. Clinton—who informed that they had not seen an Indian on their March from lake Otzego.—that they had burnt Chenango and Owega and destroyed all their crops—The day exceeding rainy –And the party detached to meet Genl. Clinton having no tents were obliged to lie out without any covering—
Saturday 21 Augt.
Spent the day in study—finished Burlamaqui and made preparations for the Sabbath—
Sunday Augt. 22
Genl. Clinton with his army arrived about 12 o’Clock—He brought with him from the head of the Susquehanna 200 flat-bottomed boats with provision.—No divine service performed in Camp today on account of the hurry—
Monday Augt. 23.
The whole army much engaged in preparing to march—an officer in Genl. Poor’s brigade was shot by one of his own soldiers, to appearances accidently.—
Tuesday Augt. 24.—
Our march put off on account of a distribution of horses to be made to Genl. Clinton’s brigade—The officer mentioned in yesterday’s journal buryed with the honor of war—
Wednesday Augt. 25—
Very rainy—The army ordered to remain on the ground—Three Indians from the Oneida castle and of that tribe, all respectable characters, came in—they were ten days out—an express arrived from Fort Pitt with agreeable news from Col. Broadhead [Brodhead]—that the Cherokees had received the war belt and tomhock [tomahawk] in our favour—Also that the Delawares had joined him—The news papers announce the victory which Count de Estaign [d’Estaing] obtained over the British Squadron in the West Indies—on the 6th of July—
Thursday 26 Augt.
About half after twelve o’Clock the army, except about 500 men, lame, sick and cowardly under command of Col. Shreve, & all the women, marched about 4 miles up the Caiuga branch, where we encamped about 3 o’Clock—along the river side for this distance we had exceeding good wild meadow, which bears a luxuriant burden of grass nutritious and agreeable to both horses and black Cattle. I took leave of several of my friends who tarried behind with some scruples about the time and manner of my seeing them again. About 20 boats accompanied us to carry some supernumery articles of provision—
Friday Augt. 27.
Marched about 7 o’Clock A.M. and reached the lower Chemung flats about 10 o’Clock at night—The road this day generally pretty good except a long defile formed by a mountain and the river, at the end of which we were detained about 6 hours before we could make it passable and after every thing we could do it took 100 men with drag ropes to assist the waggons and artillery—notwithstanding the former were not half loaded—At these flats we found large quantities of Indian Corn cultivated probably by the Tories for the Indian expeditions against our frontiers, which after taking as much as we could use, we destroyed—Many of the soldiery found other plunder taken from our distressed friends at different places. We crossed two clever streams of water between the defile and this camp—our distance 6 miles & our course N W
Saturday 28 Augt. —
On account of our late arrival last night we did not move till 3 o’Clock P.M.—and arived at Chemung about 6 o’Clock—on this days march we crossed the Caiuga branch to the west side and after marching about two miles we recrossed it. The stream was not more than middle deep; but so rapid that many of our men and horses were swept down and would have been drowned had it not been for the timely assistance of those who were stronger—I myself dragged one and carried another across. At Chemung there are fine flats on both sides of the river—This day Genl. Sullivan ordered the troops to live upon corn and beans to lengthen out our provision assuring us that we should not be credited by [i.e., charged for the cost of] that day’s rations.—Our distance about 4 miles and our course N. W.
Private, 4th New York Regt., 1778-79
© Don Troiani
Sunday Aug. 29.
Marched from Chemung about 11 o’Clock—after marching about three miles our advanced party was fired on by a few Indians—The Army was halted and reconnoitring parties sent out who discovered that the enemy had thrown up extensive works of wood and bushes on the farther side of a small creek and swamp, the right of which extended almost to the confluence of this creek with the Caiuga branch—The General after giving the necessary orders to every department detached Genl. Poor’s brigade to turn their right flank and at the same time began a canonade in their front with two pieces of artillery which soon occasioned them to leave their works with great disorder. Genl. Poor however fell in with them in their way to take post on a high hill to the left of their lines, and had a severe scattering engagement and caused them to retreat in great confusion—We had during the whole action only three men killed and about 30 wounded—We took 11 scalps and two prisoners both Tories—The engagement began about 2 o’Clock and continued ‘till 5 in the afternoon after which we marched on about 2 miles and encamped at a small town, on the ground where the enemy had lain about 8 days. We found large quantities of corn growing on the flats on both sides of the river, which we effectually destroyed—We took a great deal of plunder at different places and secreted in different ways—It appeared upon the examination of the prisoners that the famous Butler and Brant were both of the party—and that their number was 220 whites called Butler’s rangers and 400 Indians—I attended the amputation of an officer’s leg the same night which was a scene more distressing than that in the day—
Monday 30 Augt. —
Continued at New Town to destroy the large flats of corn on both sides of the rivers—Dismissed our boats and sent in them to Tioga the wounded, waggons and spare ordnance—
Tuesday Augt. 31.
Marched from New Town about 11 o’Clock. In about 2 miles we came to a small town with some neat houses which we set on fire—three miles farther at the mouth of a small creek we came to another town which the enemy had just evacuated—Great parcels of wool, feathers etc were lying about it—We collected the whole, put it in the houses and burnt all together—At this place we left the Caiuga branch and stood more northwardly, nearly the course of the creek, through a fine, level, open valley and encamped about 6 o’Clock upon its banks.—The land over which we marched today very good and covered with grass—The flats on both sides of the Caiuga incomparably good—our whole distance 10 ½ miles—
Wednesday Septr. 1.
Began our march about 10 o’Clock. The country continued open about 5 miles except one bad defile, we then entered a thick woody swamp, covered with pine, Hemlock, etc., which continued near 5 miles and cost us much difficulty to pass. In this swamp we came upon a large stream which runs northerly and empties into the Senekaa [Seneca] Lake. This is the first turn of the waters. After we crossed the swamp we turned down the east side of it thro a large tract of bottom land and in three miles came to French-Cat[h]arine’s Town, consisting of about 15 houses, etc, within 3 miles of the south end of the Senekaa-lake. Here we found two very old squaws who had been left by the Indians to suffer the calamities of war. They informed us that the families and the warriors had considerable altercation about leaving the Town, the former were for staying and submitting to their fate, the latter urged that they should be obliged to give up prisoners to redeem them—The families left the place about the middle of the day and the warriors not ‘till near sun-set—The Genl. left the old squaw that was brought into Camp a small bark house and provision enough to subsist her several Days—She was exceedingly Thankful that the Great-Spirit had put it into his heart to spare her life—Before we arrived at Cathrine’s town the most distressing scene took place—Before the rear of the army got thro’ the swamp mentioned above, night came on, the troops got separated from their own corps and the pack-horses and Artillery intermixed—In a word the whole army was a perfect chaos, without order or distinction, and to complete all the enemy were in our front—In this State the front of the Army marched near three miles, the rear however lay in the swamp ‘till next morning. In this confused scene we had two or three horses drowned in the creek runing thro the swamp which the army forded near twenty times—Our distance this day 13 miles and our course nearly North.
Thursday Septr. 2.
Continued at Cathrine’s town to get in order for marching and to refresh the Army—During our stay our horses and cattle destroyed several fields of corn, beans etc—The General sent out several parties in quest of the enemy who were supposed to be not far off, but they made no discoveries—
Friday Septr. 3.
About 8 o’Clock A.M. we marched after seting fire to the Town, cuting down some fruit trees etc.—We marched about 12 miles this day along the side of the Senekaa-lake—The land was exceeding good and covered with large timber and great quantities of rich weeds, well watered and capable of great improvement. We had but one or two defiles and those not difficult—we encamped about 5 o’Clock P.M. in good order—our course north—
Saturday Septr. 4.
The night before having been a little rainy we did not march ‘till 10 o’Clock in the morning. In about 4 miles we came to a small Indian town consisting of 4 or 5 houses which we burnt—we also destroyed several corn fields. We encamped about 6 o’Clock after a march of about 11 miles having but one or two defiles. The land this day exceeding good and level abounding with large Timber and much herbage. Our course nearly north along the Seneca lake—
Sunday Septr. 5.
Marched at 10 and arrived at Kandaia about 2 o’Clock. Kandaia is an old town consisting of about 20 houses within about ¼ of a mile of the lake. In the centre of the town there was a considerable orchard of appletrees and in it several tombs of great warriors curiously built of plank and decorated with paint in various forms—They were about 9 feet long, 4 feet wide & 4 feet high—We were informed that no characters except warriors are intitled to such monuments. At this place we retook a man who had been taken from Wyoming—He informed us that the enemy had gone off the Friday before to Kanadasaga [Kanadusaga], that they had been in a perishing situation for want of provision before the corn was fit for use, and that he himself had not eaten any Meat for near a twelve month.
Monday Septr. 6.
On account of the scattered situation of our horses and cattle we did not march ‘till 2 o’Clock P.M. About 5 we halted in a pleasant grove of trees on the side of the lake and encamped for the night—It gave me no small degree of pleasure to see our horses & cattle voraciously eating the luxuriant peavine, which bountiful nature had provided for their repast, as they had been tied to stakes and trees the night before with little or nothing to subsist them. Our distance this day about 4 miles and our course nearly north. A party of 3 men who had gone astray the day before returned & reported that they had burnt an Indian town on the Caiuga lake.
Tuesday Septr. 7.
After an agreeable night’s rest occasioned by the agreeableness of the place and some very interesting news, foreign and domestic, which we had heard the evening before, we marched about 8 o’Clock—Bearing down the lake between nine and ten miles we came to the north end of it where we crossed a small stream which is the only efflux we perceived from the lake; it is not more than 20 yards wide and fordable about 50 yards below where it leaves the bason. After we had crossed our baggage and provision we turned round the north end of the lake, and coming to a small creek runing into the lake, the army was divided into three divisions and a reserve, Maxwell’s brigade on the right, Hand’s on the left, Poor’s in the center and Clinton’s in the rear to bring up the pack horses etc—in this form we marched up to Canadasaga about sundown expecting the savages to give us opposition, but found it deserted and strip[p]ed of everything except some dear skins and bear skins. Canadasaga consisted of about 30 houses, with a great quantity of corn in the fields. Seneca lake is 36 miles in length and from 1 to 6 in breadth abounding with fish of various kinds.
Wednesday Sept 8
Continued at Canadasega, sent out a party to burn a town of 14 houses and destroy the corn around it, which they did, girdled the fruit trees and destroyed the corn—a small voluntier party went down the stream issuing from the Seneca lake and burnt a town of 7 houses.
Thursday Sept. 9.
After seting fire to Canasadega we marched about 12 o’Clock, and arrived at a creek about 20 yards wide where we encamped for the night—the route this day was chiefly a dry woody swamp, the distance 7 miles and the course nearly west—
Friday Sept. 10.
Marched at 8 o’Clock and arrived at Kanandaiegue [Canandaiqua] about 5 in the afternoon. This village contained upwards of twenty houses and several fields of corn. After burning the town we proceeded about half a mile for the convenience of encamping—The land thro’ this day’s route was very well timbered and of excellent quality—It had nothing extraordinary except a small lake which appeared to be about 2 miles in length and half a mile in breadth, from w[hi]ch issued a small stream of water. Our distance about 9 miles and our course nearly west—
Saturday Sept. 11.
Marched at 6 o’Clock in the morning and arrived at an Indian Village of 7 or 8 houses surrounded by large fields of corn, about 3 o’Clock P.M. where we encamped for the night—our route this day was rather more hilly than usual, tho the land was rich & covered with large timber, thick herbage, and grass—our greatest difficulty was the scarcity of water both for man and beast. I observe that the Indians never seek for springs of water to build their towns at, but take any kind of runing stream. Our distance about 14 miles and our course nearly West.
Sunday Sept. 12.
The army moved from Anyayea, so called from a man’s losing his finger at the place before the town was built, about 12 o’Clock. The morning was rainey and having some corn to destroy we could not march sooner. Captain Cummings with 50 men, the invalids, provision, stores and weak horses were left – also one brass 3 pounder under command of Capt. Rice, until our return from Chenesey [Genesee]—We arrived at a piece of open ground about 5 o’Clock P.M. where we encamped. The land over which we passed this day arable and of pretty good quality—we passed the south end of a small lake about 6 miles from Anyayea—it appeared to be ½ a mile in width and 2 miles in length—our distance 10 ½ miles and our course nearly north west—
Monday Sept. 13.
The army moved at 7 o’Clock A.M. In about 1 ½ miles we came to an Indian town of 8 or 10 houses called Kaneghsa, where we halted to destroy the corn & improvements. The General had sent out, the evening before, Lt. Boyd of the rifle Corps & 25 rifle men together with Han Yost the Oneida Warrior to reconnoitre the next town—who after killing & scalping one Indian were returning and were pursued by a number of the savages & Rangers under Butler—one of the Rifle men killed another Indian and while they were scalping him the rest surrounded them—Nine of the party got in, one of whom was wounded in the hand—14 we found killed and scalped in the woods—The residue of the party fell into the hands of the enemy. We moved on thro a fine open country for about 9 miles when the advanced party informed the Genl. that the enemy were drawn up in battle array nearly in sight of the main body of the Army. After the necessary disposition was made we advanced on, expecting every moment to make the attack. Maxwell’s brigade to the left, Poor’s to the right, Hand’s in the centre and Clinton’s as a reserve—We arrived at the town called Kossawaulougharey between sundown and dark, but found that the savages & Tories had fled without daring an action—after firing four pieces of artillery a disposition was made [for] encampment—our whole distance this day 10 ½ miles and our course nearly So. West.
Tuesday Sept 14.
After destroying the corn and seting fire to the houses we left Kossawauloughary about 12 o’Clock. This Town’s name signifies, the spear laid up—After crossing a creek about 20 yards wide and passing thro’ a small tract of bottom land we got into one of the largest and most beautiful planes I ever saw, called Chenesey Flats—It is supposed to contain upward of 10,000 acres of land, and is covered with grass from 4 to 8 feet high—Here the whole army and its apparatus could be seen at one view, which exhibited a most lovely prospect especially to one acquainted with their virtue and bravery—In about two miles we came to the great Seneca river which we forded, being not more than 40 yards wide; we then left the Flats, ascended the hill, and stood down the river for Chenesee which we reached in about 4 miles. Chenesee was the Capitol of the 6 nations and especially of the Senecas, consisting of near 50 houses. The quantities of corn were unaccountable, field upon field, and that the most luxuriant—Here we found two of the prisoners taken the day before, supposed to be Lt. Boyd & a private, most barbarously murdered—Lt. Boyd’s head was cut off, skinned, both eyes taken out, and his tongue cut out by the root—his body was speared in 7 places and his private parts cut off—The soldier’s head was cut off and skinned, the flesh was cut in steakes off his shoulder, and back—Barbarity and cruelty itself instigated by the Devil could not shew a more shocking spectacle. Here we encamped for the night. Our Whole distance about 6 miles this day and our course about No. West.—
Wednesday Sept. 15.
The forenoon continued at Chenesee to destroy the corn, and about 2 o’Clock after seting fire to every thing combustible we marched agreeably to general orders towards Cossawaulougharey on our way to Tioga. No symptoms of joy ever appeared more strongly painted in the countenances of a set of men, than those discovered at the order for our return, and no obedience was ever paid with greater alacrity. Before we left Chenesee a white woman with her child about 2 years old who had made her escape from the Savages came to us. Her history was truely lamentable. Her husband, herself and three children were made prisoners at Wyoming in the spring of 78 and brought into the Indian country—Her husband was murdered after they arrived at Cossawaulougharey, where she has been kept ever since, her two elder children who were little Girls about 8 or 10 years old were torn from her and taken to a distant town where she supposes they have continued ever since—This tragical story she related pathetically—her dress was much in the Indian taste, but her appearance was delicate—Chenesee is said to be between 70 and 80 miles from Niagara and about 30 from lake Ontario. This evening we returned as far as the creek at the east end of the Chenesee plains.
Thursday Sept. 16.
After destroying some corn which had been left as a supply for our horses on their return we marched as far as Kaneghsa—The Afternoon was employed in destroying corn, which was attended with no small difficulty as we were obliged to make large fires to burn it.—
Friday Sept 17.
Marched as far as Anyayea where we arrived about 12 o’Clock. It gave us unspeakable satisfaction to find the garison and provision safe as we feared the savages would have attempted to surprize it, making no doubt but they had extorted every necessary intelligence from the unfortunate Lt. Boyd and his party whom they had made prisoners. But upon finding Capt. Cummings disposition so complete we judged it impracticable for any equal number of men to have injured him. He had built a wall round the house, with a number of embrasures of the bags and kegs of flour and about 20 yards farther out an abbatis of strong brush.
Saturday Sept. 18.
After arranging our provision, stores and ammunition and killing a number of horses that were unable to travel we marched on for Kanandaieque, about a mile to the eastward of which on the side of a [word missing] we encamped. This day the Indian Bluaback returned from Oneida with 2 others, one a Sachem decorated in the most gorgeous manner, with silver ear rings, nose-jewel, bracelets, and breast-plates—They informed the General that 100 of their warriors had set out and come as far as [blank] to join him but from the information of a Cahnawaga whom they met, that the army had moved so rapidly that it would be impossible to overtake them, they returned, but authorized them to assure him that they would live or die with us, that they would conquer or be conquered with us, that they would assist us in puting the petticoat on all our enemies.
Iroquois Warrior, ca. 1776-84
© Don Troiani
Sunday Sept 19.
About 8 o’Clock we marched for Kanadasega where we arrived about 5 o’Clock in the afternoon. Several horses this day dropped down dead with the oppression of their loads and others were shot, which were not able to travel. This day the General ordered us to receive a full allowance of flour, but was obliged to continue us on half allowance of beef.—
Monday Sept. 20.
The army continued at Canadasega the forenoon and the General sent different parties viz Col. Smith to destroy the corn at Gothseunga, who returned the same night after executing the business of his command. Also Col. Butler with 500 men to scour the country, destroy the towns and corn on the east side of the Caiuga lake—His route from Kanadasega was across the north end of the Senecan lake and across the north end of the Caiuga lake—These two lakes run parallel to each other, nearly of the same dimensions, and are from 8 to 12 miles apart. The country between them is level and of excellent quality, and the situation agreeable—Large streams issue from them, which run into each other and that into the stream issuing from the Oneida lake, which with a small creek coming from the Onondaga lake make a large navigable river that runs into lake Ontario. So that there is a clear navigation to Quebec or New York, except a small carrying place—This day crossed the Seneca lake & encamped.
Tuesday Sept 21.
The Genl. detached Lt. Col. Dearborn with 200 men to destroy the settlements and crops on the west side of the Caiuga-lake—The army marched about 7 o’Clock, by the route which they came about 12 miles and encamped—several horses gave out under their loads and were shot on account of their inability.
Wednesday Sept. 22.
After killing a number of horses the army marched about 14 miles and encamped—
Thursday Sept. 23.
The army marched about 7 o’Clock passed Cathrine’s town where we found the old squaw whom we had left on our advance, and also another dead not far from her—She had been shot and striped naked. We encamped about 4 o’clock in the afternoon at the side of the swamp through which the Allegenah [Allegheny] Mountain runs which seperates the southern and northern waters.
Friday Sept. 24.
The army marched about 7 o’Clock, entered the swamp and arrived at Newtown at the confluence of the Creek by some called the Caiuga branch, and the Caiuga branch of the Susquehanna, by some called the Tioga branch about 5 o’Clock—on this day’s march we lost between 30 & 40 horses—I received a letter from the Honble Col. Brearley, that gave me no small degree of satisfaction—
Saturday Sept. 25.
The Army lay at Newtown—A Fieu de joie was fired in the afternoon on account of the favorable appearance of our affairs both at home and abroad, particularly for the favorable disposition of the Court of Spain in behalf of France and ultimately in behalf of the Americans—This day Lt. Col. Smith was sent on command to Easton upon private business—Many things were conjectured concerning it which I shall not mention at present.—
Sunday Sept. 26.
The army continued at Newtown. Lt. Col. Dearborn with his party returned from the west side of the Caiuga lake, and reported they had destroyed considerable fields of corn, burnt two towns and a number of scattering houses—the last and best town was about 3 miles from the south end of the lake, consisting of 17 or 18 houses—They took two squaws whom they brought in—they also left an old Squaw and a decrepit man who were unable to travel—All the other inhabitants fled. We anxiously looked for the arrival of Col. Butler—
Monday Sept. 27.
Colonel Butler with his party returned from scouring the east side of the Caiuga lake and informed that he had met with no opposition from the enemy, that he had burnt four towns, destroyed several large fields of corn, a great number of fruit trees etc—The Caiuga lake is by actual survey 34 miles in length and from 3 to 10 in breadth—
Tuesday Sept. 28.
The army continued at Newtown that Col. Butler’s party might have time to refresh themselves—Col. Courtland with about 400 men were sent up the Caiuga branch in quest of Indian towns and corn fields—Col. Dayton with an equal number was sent out to cross the Caiuga branch on the business—
Wednesday Sept. 29.
The whole army began their march for Tioga about 11 o’Clock and arrived at the plains of lower Chemung about 3 in the Afternoon, where we encamped. After night the parties under Dayton & Cortland returned and reported that they had destroyed several cornfields.
Thursday Sept. 30—
The army began their march about 9 o’Clock and arrived at Tioga about 3 in the afternoon—on our way we were met by many of the Officers from Tioga who gave us a very hearty welcome—Col. Shreve gave an invitation to all the principal Officers of the Army to dine with him—accordingly all the General Officers etc partook of his dinner with great Festivity—Upon our arrival we were saluted by the firing of 13 pieces of cannon from the fort and returned the salute with 13 rounds from our grass hoppers [i.e., small cannon]—
October Friday 1.
About 3 o’Clock in the afternoon Col. Dayton, Major Ogden, and myself took leave of our friends, embarked with our baggage on board of a boat for Wyoming—where we arrived the next day after sunset, after rowing the whole night—
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